One of the fallouts of the Southeast Asian financial crises of 1997 and the economic slowdown in the US and other developed economies about a decade later is that they have brought into focus the need for a few methodologies for assessing the strength of financial institutions such as banks and other lending institutions for absorbing shocks of the kind the crisis unleashed. This practice has given rise to the concept of stress testing for financial institutions.
What is stress testing for financial institutions?
In simple terms, one can understand stress testing for financial institutions as the valuation done to help understand the extent to which a financial institution can withstand shocks and stresses. The world’s leading financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) coined these phrases in the 1990’s. To associate it to a more relatable point, it can be considered the financial equivalent of a cardiac echo stress test that is carried out to test the ability of the heart to withstand stress. Today, stress testing for financial institutions has come to be accepted as a major tool for analyzing the ability of a financial institution to withstand and ingest the various stresses, vulnerabilities and pressures it is put to.
Types of stress testing for financial institutions
Stress testing for financial institutions is understood at two levels: 1) the micro level, in which its ability to withstand stresses and strains caused by small scale lending, such as to individuals, small scale industries that require small amounts of loans, and other financial institutions in which small amounts of money is lent; 2) the macro level, where stress testing for financial institutions is assessed in relation to its ability to handle portfolios for aggregate lending, such as to governments, international trade, multinational companies and so on.
Who does stress testing for financial institutions?
Generally, it is financial institutions themselves who carry out their own stress testing. When they are carrying out their lending and other operations, they have to take into consideration all the market factors that could cause stress to their ability to carry out their other activities such as lending. Stress testing for financial institutions should consist of a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in relation to the risks associated with the particular operation or portfolio. Stress testing for financial institutions should ideally look at the market forces, the organization’s strengths, and its ability to grow, the scope of their products or services in the fluctuating market, and so on, and relate them to the financial institution’s balance sheet.
Of late, financial regulatory bodies and other independent firms have been engaged in carrying out stress testing for financial institutions.